Volume 2, Issue 2, Winter 2019

The articles in this sixth issue of the Journal cover security strategy and political philosophy; and they take the reader from current events all the way back to the 16th century “Age of Discovery.”  There is a transatlantic connection throughout:  F. Charles Parker IV finds that Trump Administration policy toward NATO represents a reversal of U.S. strategy that is strengthening the alliance; Mark L. Melcher summarizes  the origins of Leftist ideologies in Europe and their migration to the United States, and Richard Thornton recounts the exploration (and exploitation) of new territories in the Western Hemisphere by Spanish-backed conquistadors, as they sought a faster route to China’s market for silver.

Cover, Table of Contents, and Editorial Note (PDF)

The Trump Administration and NATO: The End of the Long Goodbye and the Start of Something New (PDF)—F. Charles Parker IV

Abstract: Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has been on a path of gradual disengagement from Europe. The election ofDonald Trump and his “America First” platform appeared to portend an acceleration of the retreat. In fact, however, the Trump Administration has reversed course, increasing the U.S. commitment to NATO defense capabilities, while persuading allies to do the same.

Know Thine Enemy: A History of the Left, Vol. I (PDF)—Mark L. Melcher

Abstract: The belief system widely known as “the Left” emerged in the 18th century based on the notion that science and reason—not religion—should be the foundation of a modern society. This article first sketches the evolution of revolutionary thought and violent social unrest in Europe through the period ending with WWI. It then discusses the emergence of the Left in America from the dawn of the industrial age to the presidency of Woodrow Wilson.

Searching for China, Discovering America (PDF)—Richard C. Thornton

Abstract: The “silverization” of China’s economy made it a magnet for the metal at a relatively high price. European merchants sought a faster sea-transit route to China to enable their participation in this trade, sparking the westward expeditions of Christopher Columbus and other explorers backed by Spain. Their missions evolved into seizing new territory and gold for the crown and for themselves.

Hernan Cortez: Of Contracts and Conquest (PDF)—Richard C. Thornton

Abstract: Ambitious, brave, brutal and charismatic, Hernan Cortez and his compatriots explored and conquered Mexico despite efforts by a jealous Spanish governor to commandeer the enterprise and traps laid by Aztec Emperor Montezuma II, a strategic thinker on par with the conquistador. He paved the way for even greater enrichment and expansion of the Spanish empire in the Americas.